Paper Presented at the 18th Annual Islamic medical Association Convention, Capetown, South Africa, 25-27th April 1998 by Dr Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr.; Professor and Deputy Dean for Research and Post-graduate Affairs, Faculty of Medicine, International Islamic University, Malaysia Fax (603) 757 7970 e-mail omarkasule@yahoo.com


The Islamic Medicine Movement (IMM) with Islamic Medical Associations (IMA) at the forefront has succeeded in mobilizing Muslim health professionals, providing services, lobbying for social and ethical issues. It now faces 3 unresolved challenges in the African context: articulating an Islamic paradigm of medicine: (a) Islamic training of health professionals by establishing private medical schools. (b)  Wide-scale involvement in primary health-care by establishing a net-work of self-sustaining and self-financing systems that are responsive to the needs of the poor and neglected of society.



The paper reviews the main achievements IMM over the past 3 decades in several parts of the world. IMM as an idea and as a movement has matured and it is high time to define new challenges and new directions. Continuation of the past activities is still needed but will not suffice to maintain the enthusiasm and loyalty of the members as well as ensure sustenance of IMM as a vibrant and progressive movement. The paper recommends initiation of two projects in Southern Africa: (a) training of physicians (b) primary health care services delivery. The term 'Islamic medicine movement' is used in this paper to cover all efforts by Islamic medical associations, universities, research centers, individuals, governmental and non-governmental institutions to identify and pursue a practical vision and expression of the Islamic revival (tajdid) in the medical and health fields. Islam is comprehensive and universal seeking to assure welfare for all humanity and is not confined to any place, time, or any particular ethnic or racial group. Medicine is a system of maintaining good quality-life by health promotion, disease prevention, and diagnosis & treatment if illness, and preventing or limiting disability. It covers physical, mental, and spiritual aspects.



2.1 Success and limitations

IMM has been very successful in the following areas: mobilizing Muslim health professionals and strengthening their Islamic identity, establishing professional and social net-works among Muslim health professionals,  providing needed health and social services for the poor, championing ethical issues from an Islamic point of view, and lobbying for political or social agendas that promote the Islamic cause. It has however not yet produced a clear and practical paradigm of Islamic medicine.


2.2 The Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA)

IMANA is the mother organization of all Islamic medical associations. Started in 1967 as a professional branch within the Muslim Students Association of the US and Canada, it succeeded in bringing together many Muslim immigrant physicians in the US. It has published a respectable journal, held annual conventions, and assisted young Muslim physicians to settle down in North America. It has been involved in coalitions to fight for the professional rights of foreign educated Muslim physicians working in the US and Canada. It also has assisted American-trained Muslim physicians find positions in the rich Muslim countries of the middle-east.  IMANA was the pioneer that encouraged the formation of IMAs in other countries. At the moment there are IMAs in Nigeria, UK, Ireland, Pakistan, India, Sudan, Jordan, Malawi, Uganda, Egypt, Indonesia, and Mauritius. IMANA also pioneered the formation of the Federation of Islamic Medical Associations (FIMA) in 1981. It has continued to play a global role by holding its annual convention in a different Muslim country every year to encourage professional and social interaction in the ummat.


2.3 The Islamic Medical Association of South Africa (IMASA)

South Africa has always stood out as a unique Muslim community. Although Muslims are only 2% of the total population and are one of the small Muslim minorities in the world, their level of dynamism and contribution is very high; it may not be far from the mark to state that they are the most active and productive Muslim community in the world on a per capita basis. True to form, South African physicians have been very active in IMM. Starting as a physicians’ committee (lajnat al atibaa) in 1974 involved in running rural clinics, IMASA has now grown to have more than 1000 members and more than 20 branches all over the country.  Its activities within the borders of South Africa and the neighboring countries of Southern Africa include: mobile and static clinics, disaster relief, annual conventions, publications, and lobbying for moral issues during and after the apartheid era. IMASA has been an active member of the Federation of Islamic Medical Association (FIMA) since its inception in Florida 1981 (3). The experience of IMASA illustrates the hopes, aspirations, and achievements of the Islamic Medicine Movement. IMASA has managed to mobilize and Muslim physicians and overcame initial opposition to a distinct Islamic identity within the medical profession (3). As a result many individual physicians came to know one another well and to cooperate professionally and socially. The association has published books, brochures, flyers, and handbooks on ethical and practical issues in medicine (7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 28, 67, 69). Its clinics program for the medically-under served provided an opportunity for Muslim physicians to volunteer their time in a worthwhile endeavour (10). IMASA uses its bulletin to advertise positions and locums. The annual conventions provide an opportunity for direct person-to-person networking.


2.4 International Organization of Islamic Medicine (IOIM) and Islamic Organization of Medical Sciences (IOMS):

The Ministry of Public Health in Kuwait under Dr Abdul Rahman al Awadi played a leading mobilizing role in the early 1980s by bringing together Muslim physicians from all over the world in international conferences in 1981 and 1982 (6) that were followed by conferences in Pakistan and Egypt. An International Organization of Islamic Medicine (IOIM) that was a result of these conferences did not persist. The IOIM had an original ambitious aim to build a 10 million Kuwaiti Dinar research center on traditional medicinal herbs. Dr Abdurahman al Awadi retired from government and  continued the effort under a more-modestly-named private foundation called The Islamic Organization for Medical Sciences (IOMS) which has continued holding seminars and publishing high-quality books on medico-legal and medico-ethical issues (32).


2.5 Other achievements:

The traditional unani system of medicine in India and Pakistan, under official government patronage, is very much alive and at various forums has claimed by its proponents to a true representative of Islamic medicine. The Hamdard Foundation in both India and Pakistan has done a lot to promote traditional remedies. The Islamic Medicine Movement has given a good account of itself in the field of medical and general relief. IMAs have established clinics for the poor in Egypt, Sudan, Mozambique, and South Africa. They have been actively involved in relief work. The Egyptian IMA was very active in that country’s earthquake disaster. Crises in Bosnia and Afghanistan provided a rallying point for bringing Muslim physicians together to be able to provide medical relief. Physician committees in middle-eastern countries have been very active in relief activities all over the world. Islamically-oriented medical schools are a new feature of the Islamic Medicine Movement. The International Islamic University in Malaysia opened its new school in 1997 with a curriculum that integrates the Islamic input into the general medical course (4, 54-58). The Dar al Shifa medical school is being planned in Pakistan. Indonesia has medical schools in some of its Muslim-controlled universities. The emphasis is to prepare the future physicians to be practising Muslims. Islamically-oriented medical educators have made several Islamic changes in existing public and private medical schools.


2.6 Bio-ethical issues, medico-legal, and Medico-social Issues:

Yusuf al Qaradhawi in his land-mark book al halal wa al haram fi al Islam was a pioneer in discussing Islamic solutions to medico-legal and medico-ethical problems that arise in modern society (68). When the book was written in the 1960s the brave new world of biotechnology and all its complications had not yet fully unfolded. Since then a myriad of issues have appeared and continue increasing daily. Muslim physicians have been very active in discussions of these issues holding seminars and publishing books and pamphlets (22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 51, 59, 60, 69). The main issues of discussion and debate being: definition of the start and end of life, artificial insemination, in-vitro fertilization, abortion, surrogate motherhood, organ transplantation, organ and tissue banks. Muslim intellectuals have continued to defend the holistic view of medicine that medicine is not practised in a social vacuum and that social factors have to be taken into account in the cure and prevention of disease (15, 41).


Two issues arise in the discussion of these issues. The first issue is that of ownership. It is unfortunate that these problems have largely been discussed out of context and without asking and answering the question of ownership. These problems belong to the contemporary western industrial society and have root-causes within it. Islam and its law was revealed to be applied in a particular moral and social context. Islam can not solve all problems that arise in the western society as long as fundamental aspects of that society are not changed. The Prophet started by establishing new moral foundations for the first state in Madina before extensive application of the shariat.  The second issue is that these problems are artifacts of this age and can not be resolved by direct reference to legal precedent. A paper presented to the International Seminar on Organ Transplantation and Health Care Management in Jakarta made the case that using the concepts of purposes of the law (maqasid al shariat) and the principles of the law (qawaid al fiqhiyyat) that are in turn derived from the Qur’an and sunnat can be employed more efficiently in balanced logical reasoning that leads to practical solutions (51). This approach will, however, help resolve some but not all the problems. The un-resolvable problems require social transformation first. When a moral social order is established the problems may become limited and of little consequence.


2.7 Overall Evaluation

As can be surmised from the above, IMM has achieved a lot. There are three outstanding challenges in which success still eludes IMM: (a) articulating a distinct paradigm of Islamic medicine at an intellectual level which is explained by the fact that it is rare to find persons who combine a deep understanding of the basic sources of Islam, the Qur’an and sunnat, with advanced medical knowledge. (b) Training physicians imbued with Islamic values (c) Participation on a large scale in providing health services



3.1 Definition of Islamic Medicine

The concept of Islamic Medicine is still elusive after more than 2 decades of inquiry about the matter. It has meant many things to different people. The 1st International Conference on International Medicine held in Kuwait debated two approaches to the definition: (a) concept of revival of ancient Muslim medicine and the (b) the concept of applying Islamic values and paradigms to any type of medicine thereby Islamising it (52). Subsequent seminars and publications in Kuwait delved deeper into the issue (44, 45, 46). Two seminars were held in Malaysia with the involvement of the Islamic Medical Association of Malaysia to debate the issue in July 1995 and 1997 (52, 33). The debate has not yet been put to rest. It is unlikely that the debate will be closed in a definitive way in the near future. However this lack of clarity has not prevented practical results and pursuits of Islamic medicine. Theory and conceptual clarity will be achieved with practical experience.


3.2 Traditional or alternative medicine

The debate on the definition of Islamic medicine has been blown off course in 2 unhealthy ways. Some persons who have no medical training have claimed to practise the so-called Islamic medicine as an alternative to western medicine. The Islamic sentiments of the masses as well as disenchantment with systems of medical care have turned many towards this alternative form of medicine. Our experience with practitioners of this medicine are pursuing narrow interests. Not only do they provide medicine and other forms of physical therapy buy they also sometimes get involved in superstitious practices that contradict the tauhidi creed of Islam. A second way in which this debate has become unhealthy is when it is politicised and it becomes an issue of cultural or ‘medical’ nationalism, both concepts being alien to Islam. The argument goes like this: if westerners have scientific medicine provided at government hospitals, then Africans or other ethnicities should also have their own traditional medicine that must be defended against the encroachment of western medicine. Islam came to break down barriers of prejudice and build one universal brotherhood under which all parochial interests would be buried. Islam therefore does not accept a dichotomy in medicine depending on who developed it. All medicine is judged on its usefulness, effectiveness, and lack of harmful effects. All effective and useful medical systems either in toto or in parts are accepted by Muslims and they are loathe to attach nationalistic labels to them.


3.3 Medicine of the early Muslim society

Starting with the advent of the 15th century of hegira that coincided with major political and social upheavels in the ummat (Iranian revolution, Afghan jihad, islamisation in Pakistan under the late Zia al Haqq), there was increased pride in the achievements of the Islamic civilisation in all fields including medicine. A major proportion of the papers at the 1st and 2nd International Conferences on Islamic Medicine in Kuwait in 1981 and 1982 respectively was devoted to history (6). Special seminars either free-standing or as part of medical conferences have been devoted to the memory of early Muslim physicians such as Ibn Nafees, al Zahrawi, and others (6,18). Some of the authors demand justice for Muslim contribution to western medicine that the west has ignored (14, 63, 64, 70). Some claims of early Muslim contributions are exaggerated such as saying that al Zahrawi was the first surgeon in the world (21).


The medicine practised by Muslims in the golden era of Islamic civilization has been looked at by some as the ideal of Islamic medicine. Islamic medicine was defined by Syed Hosein Nasr and others (16, 64) as the historical achievements. The historical theme has continues to fascinate all Muslim physicians who write on Islamic medicine and reading through their literature one is drawn to the inevitable conclusion that history is both an inspiration and a challenge to the present generation (14). Arguments have been advanced that the historical perpsective can not on its own define an Islamic paradigm of medicine (52). It could actually be utilised in a negative way as a psychological defense mechanism to rationalise failure of the contemporary generation to achieve what the ancients did. It is also an issue open to debate whether all what was achieved historically can be termed Islamic medicine. Humans and circumstances were not always in  conformity with the broad vision of Islam. The ownership of such medicine is also debatable. Muslims learned it from the Greeks and they improved it. In India they did not even change its name and continued calling it tibb unani (Arabic for Greek medicine). Claiming that such medicine represents the Islamic ideal in medicine can therefore not be supported.


There have been efforts to revive traditional Muslim medicine in a new form by carrying out scientific studies including double-blind controlled clinical studies to show its therapeutic effectiveness and also study other aspects relating to its pharmacology. The 1st and 2nd International Conferences on Islamic Medicine devoted a lot of time to revival of old remedies with a lot of optimism for the future (6). The Hamdard Foundation in Pakistan in engaged in research on traditional herbal remedies. However these efforts have not been pursued vigorously and consistently in other countries.


3.4 Qur’anic and Prophetic medicine: The Qur’an and sunnat have many teachings on medicine either general or specific (19, 29, 30,31, 66, 67).  The Qur’an is itself a cure and there is a definite role for spiritual cures in the medical scheme (6). The relevance of Qur’anic and hadith guidance on medicine and health to the modern situation has been a major pre-occupation. Some authors have prescribed preventive and curative measures from the teachings of the Qur’an and the sunnat of the Prophet (1,2, 48, 71). Preventive medicine has in particular been associated with Islamic medicine (47). There have been attempts to reconcile medical teachings of the Qur’an and sunnat with modern findings by medical science (17, 61, 66). Clinical and other studies have been carried out about medical teachings in the sunnat to prove their efficacy. The black seed is the most popular in this regard (57). While tibb Qur’anu and tibb nabawi  are a valid expression of Islamic medicine, they do not represent the total picture or cover the whole spectrum of Islamic medicine (52).


3.5 Working definition of Islamic medicine

A definition proposed by Kasule (52) for Islamic medicine could act as a working hypothesis until a finer definition evolves: Islamic medicine is defined as medicine whose basic paradigms, concepts, values, and procedures conform to or do not contradict the Qur’an and sunnat. It is not specific medical procedures or therapeutic agents used in a particular place or a particular time. Islamic medicine is universal, all-embracing, flexible, and allows for growth and development of various methods of investigation and treatment of diseases within the framework described above’.




4.1 Ethical physician: There has been much concern about ethical and Islamic behaviour of physicians. The oath of a Muslim physician was developed both in Kuwait and the US as an alternative to the Hippocratic oath. The overall objective is a physician on the model of the early Muslims (13). The process has been an attempt at grafting Islamic values on a person trained and brought up in un-Islamic system. This is not only difficult but could end up as a very confused hybrid.. This could only be true theoretically. It takes more than an oath that can be pronounced in 2 minutes to change the value system, attitudes, and motivation of a person. Another generally acceptable formulation has been that of producing a physician engaged in dawah (tabiib da’iyah). The logic behind this is that anyone engaged in dawah is setting himself or herself up as a model of purity for all to see and can not dare be deviant. It seems that all the formulations above are symptomatic treatment or are short-term measures. The definitive solution lies in setting up an effective medical education and training system that imbues the future physician with Islamic values. Unfortunately there has been little writing in the training of Muslim physicians and only one book has come to our knowledge (59).


4.2 General concepts of medical education: A distinct Islamic paradigm of medical education and training can be defined. In a paper at a seminar organised by the Islamic Medical Association of Malaysia in June 1996, Kasule presented and defended 6 conceptual issues in Islamic medicine: (a) The purpose of medicine, and therefore medical education, is to maintain or improve the quality of remaining life and not to postpone or prevent death.  (b) The tauhidi paradigm requires an integrated curriculum in which medicine is taught as a total holistic approach to the totality of the human. (c) The selection and training of medical students should emphasize service within the Islamic system of mutual social support, takaful ijtimae. (d) Physicians must be leaders of society whose moral values and attitudes are a model for others. (e) Future physicians must be trained to undertake research to extend the frontiers of knowledge. (g) The medical education system must motivate the future physician to excellence and commitment following the model of the early Muslim physicians. The paper made two recommendations about the reform of the medical curriculum: (I) orienting the medical curriculum to methodology rather than accumulation of scientific information (ii) early student involvement in direct health care delivery (49).


The above-mentioned 6 concepts can be translated into reality only in an institution designed to achieve them. Medical education institutions have to be established to train medical professionals so that they  acquire the highest possible knowledge and skills in medical technology within the Islamic moral context. Hey must stand out as professionals with values and purpose. In practical terms this means establishing at least one private medical school in the Southern Africa region within the next 5 years


4.3 Strategy and Objectives of medical training:

At the personal level of the physician in training our aim should be acquisition of values, attitudes, and ethics. At the national level training both Muslim and non-Muslim physicians within an institution based on Islamic teachings will contribute directly to a moral and ethical change in the national health care delivery system by having a number of ethical individuals involved.


4.4 Curriculum content: Islamic input

The argument was made in a paper presented to the International Islamic Conference on Values and Attitudes in Science and Technology in Kuala Lumpur in 1996 that the present corpus of scientific medicine that has accumulated in the west reflects in some aspects the philosophy and world-view of the European experience of more than 2000 years. This experience has its roots in the ancient Greco-Roman and judeo-christian traditions. There is a need to re-look at medical science not as facts which change continuously but as methodology of research. Once the basic methodology of empirical research can be reformulated to be unbiased, Islamically acceptable medical research will ensue and will enrich all human experience (50).


The Islamic input in the curriculum should therefore be directed at supplying conceptual tools that make the scientific study of medicine and its methodology deeper, universal, and objective. The dichotomy that exists in many Muslim institutions of higher learning should be removed such that there are no religious sciences distinct from non-religious ones. The Islamic input should be fully integrated into the medical curriculum and should preferably be taught by the same professors who teach other medical subjects. Table 1-5 show outlines of a proposed 5-year Islamic input curriculum. The 5 manuscripts are being written  and are being tried out at the Faculty of Medicine of the International Islamic University in Malaysia (54-58). Once published this curriculum is expected to generate further work that will help propel Islamic medicine further.


4.5 Curriculum: general

We have to aim at the highest levels of knowledge and skills. Our professionals have to be trained to international standards such that they can work anywhere in the world. We should not aim at re-inventing the wheel. We should start strategic partnerships with existing premier medical schools, benefit from their curricula and personnel. We could even offer their degrees at the beginning. The fully-fledged Islamic medical schools will be established by evolution.


4.6 The international character

As a reflection of the teachings of Islam, the proposed medical school should be international with students and teachers from all over the world being admitted on an equal footing. The graduates should be trained to pass both local and international examinations in medicine so that they qualify to work anywhere in the world.


4.7 Practical suggestions

In order to run the project at low cost, it should be sited in an urban area next to a large and reputable medical school. This will decrease the expenditures involved in hiring full-time staff. A skeleton staff of heads of departments can be hired while part-time staff from neighboring institutions can be employed. An agreement should also be reached with a nearby hospital to be used for clinical training and no attempt should be made to build a hospital until after the first decade. An agreement should be reached with a reputable university to use its course materials and curricula as well as offer its degrees. The medical school should not seek to achieve an independent university status at the beginning. Rented premises should be used at the start to avoid the big capital expenses of building a permanent campus. The fee structure should be set up in such a way that medical education is affordable for the poor. The college should confine itself to teaching medicine and should not try to provide ancillary facilities like accommodation and meals.




4.1 Services for the under-privileged

The importance of services’ delivery for the under-privileged was underlined as a legitimate concern of Islamic medicine at the 2nd International Conference on Islamic Medicine in Kuwait in 1982 (53). The existing health care models are not adequate. The traditional fee-for-service is almost exclusively for the wealthy. Few and inadequate public facilities serve the majority of the citizens who are poor. A big number of people have no access even to these facilities. In general the poor have little access to affordable care. A new Islamic thinking is required to get a redress. Therefore establishing health care delivery systems that are accessible, affordable, and of high quality is a service to the people. This has become more feasible because of the general public policies favoring privatization. The Islamic system favors empowering the citizens to provide needed social services through their own family and other social institutions. The role of government is limited to providing those services that the social systems cannot such as security, external defence, transportation infra-structure, professional regulation and control of physicians etc. IMM can play a role in the privatisation of medical services by direct participation. The role model will manifest in 3 ways; (a) provision of services in an ethical ambience as a practical manifestation of the Islamic medicine paradigm (b) providing quality services at reasonable cost thus removing access barriers to many low-income groups. There are basically two models that can be used to achieve the objectives: (I)  health care facilities (ii) health insurance schemes.


4.2 Health Care Facilities

The facilities that can be established and managed could include: polyclinics, hospitals, nursing homes, and hospices. They should be managed using the most efficient management methods. The fees charged should be reasonable for people with low income. There should be a mechanism for providing a fixed proportion of care free of charge to those who can not afford. The management and ambience in these institutions should emphasize the Islamic paradigm. Both the health-care providers and the patients should observe the Islamic codes of conduct. Services should be provided to all people irrespective of their religious faith as long as they can respect the Islamic character of the institution.


4.3 Takaful Health Insurance Scheme:

An Islamic health insurance scheme covering the whole country could be set up and enrolment can be open to Muslims and non-Muslims. In return for payment of a reasonable premium, the individual enrolled in the scheme can be assured of quality primary care at private clinics and some hospitals that will sign contracts to enroll in the scheme. The start could be with the present members of IMA who have clinics. Then Muslim-owned hospitals, laboratories, x-ray plants, and pharmacies could be enrolled. It is important that only those providers who can exemplify the Islamic ideals be included in the scheme in order for it to have the expected impact.


4.4 Financing of the proposed projects

The two projects proposed above viz: private medical college and the health-care delivery system are costly and will require heavy financial outlays at the beginning as well as financial sustainability to be able to continue. The best approach to the financing is for the IMA to set up an investment subsidiary that will mobilize funds from members and non-members using Islamically-acceptable investment approaches. The funds can then be used to start the projects. The investors should be assured a modest dividend perhaps less than what they could get in the open investment market but they will get the bigger reward of making Islamic medicine a practical reality in South Africa. The details and feasibility of the two projects can be discussed later. It should never be forgotten that the two projects must be able to sustain themselves financially. They must therefore be managed well. The argument that being investment projects and requiring payment of fees from those served they are not charity could be advanced. In reply we should say that what is needed is continuous charity that can not be assured by the inefficient methods of fund-raising. Providing a quality service at a cost below what others in the market offer is an assured way to continuous charity. The investment element is needed to ensure that funds are available. Once the projects are up and operating decisions could be made to allocate a certain number of scholarships at the medical college and a certain amount of medical care for the low-income groups free of charge.





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Kasule, Sr., Omar Hasan. Concepts Of Islamic Medical Education: Presented at the 4th Annual General Meeting of the Islamic Medical Association Kuban Kerian, Kelantan 7th June1996


Kasule,Sr. , Omar Hasan: The Empirical Scientific Method:  An Islamic Reframing. Paper presented at the International Islamic Conference on Values and Attitudes in Science. Kuala Lumpur. September 1996


Kasule, Sr, Omar Hasan. Organ Transplantation: Analysis Of The Legal And Ethical Issues Using The Concepts Of ‘Maqasid Al Sharia’ And ‘Al Qawaid Al Fiqhiyyat Al Kulliyyat’. Presented at the International Seminar on Organ Transplantation and Health care Management from an Islamic Perspective 29-30 July 1996 Jakarta Indonesia)


Kasule, Sr., Omar Hasan. Islamic Medicine: Concepts and Misunderstandings. Journal of the Federation of islamic Medical Associations. Vol 1 No. 1 June 1996/Muharram 1417


Kasule, Sr., Omar Hasan: Islamic Medicine in Africa in: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine. Kuwait. 1982


Kasule, Sr., Omar Hasan.: An Islamic Introduction to the Study and Practice of Medicine. Vol 1: Basic Concepts. (manuscript in preparation). International Islamic University Kuala Lumpur 1998


Kasule, Sr., Omar Hasan.: An Islamic Introduction to the Study and Practice of Medicine. Vol 2: Basic Medical Sciences & revelation. (manuscript in preparation). International Islamic University Kuala Lumpur 1998


Kasule, Sr., Omar Hasan.: An Islamic Introduction to the Study and Practice of Medicine. Vol 3: Medicine and Jurispudence. (manuscript in preparation). International Islamic University Kuala Lumpur 1998


Kasule, Sr., Omar Hasan.: An Islamic Introduction to the Study and Practice of Medicine. Vol 4: Society & Ethics. (manuscript in preparation). International Islamic University Kuala Lumpur 1998


Kasule, Sr., Omar Hasan.: An Islamic Introduction to the Study and Practice of Medicine. Vol 5: Islamic Medicine: Past, Present and Future. (manuscript in preparation). International Islamic University Kuala Lumpur 1998


Madhkour, Khalid et al (eds). [al Islam wa al Mushkilaat al Tibiyyat al Muasirat: al Ru'uyat al Islamiyat li Ba'adhi al Mumarasat al Tibiyyat]. Islam and Contemporary Medical Problems. Series No. 3: Islamic Viewpoint on Some Medical Procedures. Islamic Organisation for Medical Sciences. Kuwait. 1987 & 1995


Madhkour, Khalid et al (eds). [al Islam wa al Mushkilaat al Tibiyyat al Muasirat: al hayat al Insaniyat: Bidayatiha wa nihayatiha fi al Mafhumi al islami]. Islam and Contemporary Medical Problems. Series No. 2:Human Life, Its Start and Its End from an Islamic Viewpoint. Islamic Organisation for Medical Sciences. Kuwait. 1985


Moore KL & Azzindani, Abdulmajeed. The Developing Human: A Clinically Oriented Embryology With Islamic Additions: Correlation Studies with Qur'an and Hadith. Dar al Qiblah for Islamic Literature 1983


Al Najjar, Abdurahman. [al Habbat al Sauda bayn al Dddin wa al Tibb] … between Religion and Medicine. Dar al Qiblat li al Thaqafat al islamiyyat. Jeddah. 1992/1412


Nadvi, Syed Habibul Haq. Medical Philosophy in Islam and the Contributions of Muslims to the Advancement of Medical Science: An Analytical Study of the Arabic medical literature, a Critique of the Oriental Scholarship and a demand for Historical Justice in Favour of Muslim medical Scientists of the Past. Academia. Durban. 1983


Nasr, Syed Hosein Nasr.Science and Civilisation in Islam. 2nd edition. The Islamic Texts Society. Cambridge 1987


Al Naqib, Abdul Rahman. [al I'dad al tarbawi wa al mihani li al tabiib inda al muslimiin] Educational and Professional Training of a Muslim Physician. Dar al Fikr al Arabi. Cairo 1984


Othman, Nabih Abdurahman: [Mu'ujizat khalq al insan bayn al tibb wa al Qur'an]: Human Creation Between Medicine and the Qur'an]. Press and Publications Directorate, World Muslim League. Makka. Year 5, No. 2,. February 1986/Jamad al awaal 1405


Omar Mahomed AK. A Healthy Diet: Islam Shows the Way. Islamic Medical Association of South Africa.  Qualbert 1994


Qaradhawi, Yusuf. The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam. American Trust Publications. Indianapolis. ? Date


Quasemi, Qazi Moulana Mujahidul Islam. Family Planning & Abortion: An Islamic Viewpoint. Islamic Medical Association of South Africa. January 1996


Shahine, YA. The Arab Contribution to Medicine. Longman. 1971


Sirawan, Abdul Aziz Izziddin. [al Istishfau min al amradh al nafsiyat wa al jasadiyat bi ad'iyat al Qur'an wa a; hadith] Cure of Psychological and Physical Diseases with Supplications from the Qur'an and hadith. Dar al Afaq al Jadidat. Beirut. ? date


Suyuti, Jalaluddin Abdul Rahman. Medicine of the Prophet. Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. London 1994/1414


Taha, Ahmad. Medicine in the Light of the Qur'an and Sunna. Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. London 1993/1413


Ulmann, Manfred. [Al Tibb al Islami] Translation from English by Dr Yusuf al Kilani. 1981/1401

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule April 1998