Home

ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES01

9703-LEADERSHIP IN MANAGEMENT

Paper at the Konvesyen Kebangsaan Kejurulatihan Model Malaysia at PWTC, Kuala Lumpur 4-5 March 1997 by Professor Dr Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. MB ChB, MPH, DrPH (Harvard) International Islamic University PO Box 70 Jalan Sultan Petaling Jaya 46700, Selangor Malaysia Fax (603) 757 7970

Abstract

This paper asserts that the traditional dichotomy between managers and leaders in business is no longer relevant. The modern manager must have leadership skills. The workers have changed; they are more educated, more self-reliant, and more assertive than before. They can manage themselves to a large extent and what they need from the manager is leadership. The working environment also needs more leadership because of the need for more planning and strategy in a rapidly changing economy and increasing competition. Many of what was traditionally considered managerial functions have now become routine and are done by computers. The paper describes the nature and types of leadership as well as the use of leadership power successfully in a business environment.

 

1.0 DICHOTOMY: LEADERSHIP & MANAGEMENT

 

1.1 Leadership and management have traditionally been looked at as different roles played by different people who may complement or even contradict one another. In practice management and leadership functions overlap and an individual exercises both leadership and management functions in varying proportions. You have to know when to lead and when to manage. Modern management thought does not recognise the dichotomy as real; a manager is considered a leader of people.

 

1.2 Below is a summary of the traditional view of the dichotomy between leaders and managers that is no longer tenable because of the rapid changes in the business environment and the work-force. It is described here as a background to later discussions in the paper.

 

1.3 Leadership calls for different skills from management. Managers are not necessarily leaders. The reverse is also true. An organisation may be well-led but poorly managed and vice versa. Leaders are concerned with effectiveness; they are intuitive and visionary; they like change, innovation, challenging the status quo, and development; they are original; focus on vision and its importance; they have a long-term view and inspire others to achieve and excel. Managers are rational problem-solvers whose concern is efficiency, process, and mechanics of achieving objectives. They administer for maintenance of stability, harmony, and the status quo. They follow and do not innovate. Their view is generally short-term.

 

2.0 CHANGING WORK-FORCE AND WORKING ENVIRONMENT

 

2.1 There is no leadership without followers. The quality of the followers determines the quality of the leadership. A good leader may fail with bad followers. An average leader may succeed if he has good followers. "The way you are is the way of your leaders". Followers get the leaders they deserve. In-congruence between followers and leaders is usually temporary and hardly exceeds a generation. A successful fit between leaders and followers leads to success.

 

2.2 In today’s setting the workers, the followers, have changed a lot which necessitates a change in the way they are led and are managed. The work-force is now more educated, more mature, more independent, more self-reliant, more assertive, and expects treatment with respect. They need leadership because they can essentially self-manage. The need of the hour is therefore business leaders who have the vision to lead and motivate a largely self-managing and self-reliant work-force.

 

2.3 The working environment has also changed. Everything is now much faster. Computers have taken over a lot of work done before by humans. The market-place is now much wider involving trans-national transactions. These changes require fundamental changes in management. These changes involve mainly leadership skills.

 

3.0 LEADERS

 

3.1 Leadership involves the following specific functions: setting and communicating visions, goals, and objectives; representing followers; directing, co-ordinating, and integrating; influencing, mobilising, motivating, creating enthusiasm and optimism; providing services and making a difference. Most of these have to do with having skills of dealing with people. The more successful leaders have better results in terms or profits and business growth. Great movements and changes in history are always associated with great leaders. Intended here is real, genuine, moral, and competent leadership based on character and integrity.

 

3.2 Leaders, being human, are not always perfect. They have strengths and weaknesses. A correct assessment of a particular leadership situation requires looking at both strengths and weaknesses. Expectations generate a power and a momentum of their own and are a very powerful motivator. A leader who effectively communicates expectations gets what he expects. Only self-confident leaders can communicate expectations effectively. Practical life tests leaders in various ways; the strongest emerge successful from the tests. A leader must be able to stand up to emotional and psychological pressures, must maintain his calm and objectivity in face of personal insults and abuse directed at him or what he stands for and loves. He must be able to deal fairly with people he is not emotionally comfortable with: opposers, those who abuse, and disparage him.

 

4.0 NATURE OF LEADERSHIP

 

4.1 Leadership is the single most important determinant in organizational success. Good leadership leads to success; bad leadership leads to frustration and failure. One of the harbingers of doom is to place leadership authority in the wrong hands. All members, supporters, and sympathizers of the organization are stakeholders who are concerned about success and failure of leadership.

 

4.2 Leadership is a function exercised by almost everybody each in his or her own sphere; we are at least leaders of ourselves or leaders of our families. Leadership can be in the community, the work-place, and in public organisations. Since everybody has some leadership roles, each one can become a more effective leader by formal training or gaining experience on the job. Not everyone wants to be a public leader. There are many people who are just not prepared to invest energy and shoulder the responsibilities of public leadership.

 

4.3 The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) taught that everybody has leadership and responsibility. “Abdullah b Umar reported the Apostle of Allah ( may peace be upon him) as saying: Each of you is a shepherd and each of you is responsible of his flock. The amir ( ruler ) who is over the people is a shepherd and is responsible for his flock; a man is a shepherd in charge of the inhabitants of his household and he is responsible for his flock; a woman is a shepherdess in charge of her husband's house and children and she is responsible for them; and a man's slave is a shepherd in charge of his master's property and he is responsible for it. So each of you is a shepherd and each of you is responsible for his flock" Abu Daud 2:827, Chapter 1089, hadith # 2922

 

In the work-place therefore there should be no barriers and strict demarcation between leaders and followers. It is best if everybody feels they are leaders and have personal responsibility.

 

4.2 Leadership is the process of influencing people and making them do certain things. It is both an art and a science. It has rational, emotional, intuitive and instinctive dimensions. Leadership involves moving followers in a certain direction mostly by non-coercive methods. Successful leaders get voluntary cooperation from followers. Good leaders deal with their followers honestly and are up front. Good leaders persuade and do not command. Fear and authority are not leadership. Leaders who depend only on authority and coercion do not go very far. Poor leaders by contrast manipulate their followers. Manipulation is getting a person to do what they are not aware of or do not want to do. True leadership is more service than domination. The leader is the servant (Sayyid Al Qawm Khadimuhum). Roles of leaders and followers can be interchanged. A leader may be a follower of a more powerful leader. A good leader must therefore also be a good follower.

 

 

5.0 LEADERSHIP POWER vs LEADERSHIP INFLUENCE

 

5.1 Modern leadership-based management is more influence than use of power and authority. Power is capability or potential to get something done. Influence is exercise of power to get something done. Authority is formal power that a leader has as a virtue of the position.

 

5.2 Power and leadership are interdependent but are not interchangeable. A leader needs power to succeed and influence others but power alone does not make an effective leader.

 

5.3 There are 2 types of leadership power: personal and positional. Both are used in varying proportions depending on the leadership situation. Personal power is based on character, expertise, charisma, and personal relations. Positional power is based on formal authority that includes decision-making, reward, punishment, and control of information and organisational resources. The leader has to make a correct judgement of which source of power to use in a particular leadership situation.

 

5.4 Influence is exercise of leadership power. Powerful leaders have more influence. They have credibility and can get more compliance from their followers. Leaders can get follower compliance by rational persuasion, appeal, pressure, promise of rewards, negotiations (win-win & compromise). Leaders get followers to do things either by making small demands followed by big ones, or by starting with big demands followed by small ones if the big ones are not possible

 

5.5 A leader gains more power and influence by building credibility. Credibility is based on competence (experience, knowledge, and skills), character (honesty, kindness, and sympathy), self-confidence, activity and drive, boldness and assertiveness. The followers must trust the leader if he is to lead them well. Building credibility starts with self-assessment to know your strengths and use them, to identify your weaknesses and compensate for them. You have to listen to and learn from the followers. Keeping promises and being predictable are very important for credibility.

 

5.6 Leaders empower followers. Good leaders lead by teaching leadership, they pull and do not push. Good leadership involves empowering followers by coaching them and then sharing leadership power with them through delegation. Followers must be given real authority, information and resources but must be held accountable for what they are doing. Empowered followers have heightened self-efficacy and self-confidence. They will have higher performance, exhibit more cooperation, achieve higher personal growth, and in the end all ensure the survival of the organization.

 

6.0 STYLES AND TYPES OF LEADERSHIP

 

6.1 Leadership is highly individualised and is very specific for the situation and the type of followers. Each circumstance calls for different skills and style of leadership. The only constant un-varying dimension is that whatever style or skills are employed, they must conform to the leader's basic personality, values, and attitudes otherwise there will be inconsistencies that will eventually lead to leadership failure.

 

6.2 Several types of leaders and styles of leadership can be described: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire. Leaders can be transactional, transformational, or charismatic. Some leaders are task oriented whilst others are people-oriented.

 

6.3 Choice of type or style must be flexible. The choice is determined by: the situation, leader personality, follower personality, type of organisation, and type of work carried out. Some situations call for use of a combination of leadership styles.

 

6.4 Autocratic leaders are dictatorial. They set goals, make all the decisions and just give followers orders to carry out. They set goals and personally direct tasks. There is very little follower feed-back. Democratic leaders on the other hand involve followers in decision-making, listen to them, and give them a chance to participate. There is feed-back from both the leaders and the followers. Laissez-faire leaders exercise hands-off management. They have little interaction with the followers. They do not care about what the followers do. The followers are free to do what they want, how and when they want.

 

6.5 Leadership may be task-oriented or people-oriented. A good leader has the right mixture of the two for the particular leadership situation he may find himself in. The correct synthesis is to concentrate first on the people, make them believe in themselves, trust them, train and nurture them and then let them produce superior results. Task-oriented leaders are mainly interested in production and results. They often have poor interpersonal skills.. People-oriented leaders are interested in the welfare of the followers and try to make them happy and contented. It this is take to the extreme productivity, quality, and results may be forgotten.

 

6.6 Transformational leaders empower, inspire, innovate, and raise passions. They have a vision and communicate it effectively. They raise followers to higher levels of motivation and morality. They give their followers a feeling of well-being and imbue new confidence and blow a new spirit in them. There is an emotional bond between the leaders and the followers. Their power is person-centred. Transactional leaders fulfil the followers' current material and psychological needs in return for performance. Their outlook is managerial.

 

6.7 Charismatic leaders arise in certain circumstances and are not selected. They are characterised by their commitment to values, enthusiasm and energy. They have person-centred authority which ends with their exit from the stage. They are revered and followers are devoted to them. They are invariably dynamic public speakers. They evoke strong emotions, display self-confidence and competence, serve as role models, communicate high expectations with transcendental goals, and embody in their person the hopes, aspirations, and frustrations of the followers. Positive charismatic leaders use their authority to improve society. Wise leaders are never fooled by the charisma. Negative charismatic leaders use that authority for their own self-aggrandisement. Charismatic leaders have a tendency to think of themselves as indispensable and to know all. They may develop egoistic and dictatorial tendencies. They can easily misuse their great authority and power. They usually do not prepare others to take their place. When they disappear from the stage they leave behind a void and instability.

 

SLIDE #1: LEADERS AND MANAGERS

 

LEADERS

Innovative

Challenge status quo

Originality

Development

Visionary

Long-term view

Inspiring

Intuitive

 

MANAGERS

Rational problem-solvers

Concerned with efficiency and process

Stability, harmony, status quo

Followers

Short-term view

 

SLIDE #2: COMPARING TYPES OF LEADERS

 

                                                                TRANSACTIONAL                            TRANSFORMATIONAL  

                                                                -------------------------                               -------------------------------

CREATIVITY

 

COMMUNICATION

 

VISION

 

EMPOWERING FOLLOWERS

 

PASSION

 

TASK-ACHIEVEMENT

 

 

SLIDE #3: VARYING LEADER & FOLLOWER ROLES

 

                                                AUTOCRATIC                     DEMOCRATIC                                    LAISSER-FAIRE

                                                (DIRECTIVE)                        (PARTICIPATIVE)                              (NOT INVOLVED)

 

GOAL SETTING

 

DEBATES            

 

DECISION            

 

FEED-BACK

 

IMPLEMENTATION

 

 

 

 

SLIDE #4: LEADERSHIP POWER

               

TYPE OF POWER                                                ADVANTAGES                   DISADVANTAGES                            

 

 

REWARD

 

PUNISHMENT

 

EXPERT

 

PERSONAL RELATIONS

 

 

SLIDE #5: LEADERSHIP STYLES

 

                                                                                DIRECTIVE           PARTICIPATIVE LAISSEZ-FAIRE

 

QUANTITY

 

QUALITY

 

INNOVATION

 

GROUP COHESION

 

CONFLICT IN GROUP

 

SATISFACTION

 

 

SLIDE #6: LEADERSHIP STYLE &  SITUATIONS

 

 

                                                                DIRECTIVE           PARTICIPATIVE LAISSEZ-FAIRE

 

CRISIS/EMERGENCY

 

LEADER HAS SUPERIOR

KNOWLEDGE

 

FOLLOWERS MATURE AND

KNOWLEDGEABLE

 

TIME IS OF ESSENCE

 

TASKS REQUIRING

CREATIVITY

 

SLIDE #7: TASK VS PEOPLE-ORIENTED LEADERS

 

                                                                                TASK-ORIENTED                               PEOPLE-ORIENTED

 

PRODUCTIVITY

 

SHARING INFORMATION

 

ACCEPTING FOLLOWER

IDEAS

 

OPEN INFORMAL

COMMUNICATION

 

LISTENING TO OTHERS

 

FACTS, DATA

 

FEELINGS, EMOTIONS

AND ATTITUDES

 

 

SLIDE #8:LEADERSHIP ACTIVITIES

 

ACT AS GROUP SPOKESMAN

 

ALLOW FOLLOWERS COMPLETE FREEDOM IN WORK

 

ENCOURAGE UNIFORM PROCEDURES

 

PERMIT FOLLOWERS TO USE THEIR JUDGEMENT IN SOLVING PROBLEMS

 

PERMIT FOLLOWERS TO PERFORM AS THEY THINK BEST

 

SETTLE CONFLICTS

 

MAKE DECISION: WHAT AND HOW

 

PUSH FOR INCREASED ACHIEVEMENTS

 

WILING TO MAKE CHANGES

 

DO NOT EXPLAIN ACTIONS

 

SLIDE #9: LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONS

 

DECISION

 

PROBLEM-SOLVING

 

IMPLEMENTATION

 

PLANNING

 

PUNISHMENT

 

REWARD

 

REPRESENT/SPOKESMAN

 

CONFLICT

 RESOLUTION

 

ROLE MODEL

 

GROUP SYMBOL

 

PARENTAL FIGURE

 

IDEOLOGIST

 

TASK ACHIEVEMENT/PUSH FOR INCREASED ACHIEVEMENT

 

LEADERS AND MANAGERS

 

LEADERS

Innovative

Challenge status quo

Originality

Development

Visionary

Long-term view

Inspiring

Intuitive

 

MANAGERS

Rational problem-solvers

Concerned with efficiency and process

Stability, harmony, status quo

Followers

Short-term view

 

COMPARING TYPES OF LEADERS

 

                                                                                TRANSACTIONAL                            TRANSFORMATIONAL  

                                                                                -------------------------                               -------------------------------

CREATIVITY

 

COMMUNICATION

 

VISION

 

EMPOWERING FOLLOWERS

 

PASSION

 

TASK-ACHIEVEMENT

 

 

VARYING LEADER & FOLLOWER ROLES

 

                                                AUTOCRATIC                     DEMOCRATIC                                    LAISSER-FAIRE

                                                (DIRECTIVE)                        (PARTICIPATIVE)                              (NOT INVOLVED)

 

GOAL SETTING

 

DEBATES            

 

DECISION            

 

FEED-BACK

 

IMPLEMENTATION

 

 

 

LEADERSHIP POWER

               

TYPE OF POWER                                ADVANTAGES                   DISADVANTAGES                            

REWARD

 

PUNISHMENT

 

EXPERT

 

PERSONAL RELATIONS

 

 

LEADERSHIP STYLES

 

                                                                                DIRECTIVE           PARTICIPATIVE LAISSEZ-FAIRE

 

QUANTITY

 

QUALITY

 

INNOVATION

 

GROUP COHESION

 

CONFLICT IN GROUP

 

SATISFACTION

 

LEADERSHIP STYLE &  SITUATIONS

 

 

                                                                DIRECTIVE           PARTICIPATIVE LAISSEZ-FAIRE

 

CRISIS/EMERGENCY

 

LEADER HAS SUPERIOR

KNOWLEDGE

 

FOLLOWERS MATURE AND

KNOWLEDGEABLE

 

TIME IS OF ESSENCE

 

TASKS REQUIRING

CREATIVITY

 


TASK VS PEOPLE-ORIENTED LEADERS

 

                                                                                TASK-ORIENTED                               PEOPLE-ORIENTED

 

PRODUCTIVITY

 

SHARING INFORMATION

 

ACCEPTING FOLLOWER

IDEAS

 

OPEN INFORMAL

COMMUNICATION

 

LISTENING TO OTHERS

 

FACTS, DATA

 

FEELINGS, EMOTIONS

AND ATTITUDES

LEADERSHIP ACTIVITIES

 

ACT AS GROUP SPOKESMAN

 

ENCOURAGE UNIFORM PROCEDURES

 

SETTLE CONFLICTS

 

MAKE DECISION: WHAT AND HOW

 

PUSH FOR INCREASED ACHIEVEMENTS

 

LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONS

 

DECISION

 

PROBLEM-SOLVING

 

IMPLEMENTATION

 

PLANNING

 

PUNISHMENT

 

REWARD

 

REPRESENT/SPOKESMAN

 

CONFLICT

 RESOLUTION

 

ROLE MODEL

 

GROUP SYMBOL

 

PARENTAL FIGURE

 

IDEOLOGIST

 

TASK ACHIEVEMENT/PUSH FOR INCREASED ACHIEVEMENT

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. March 1997