What is leadership?
Types of leadership
Evaluation of leaders
Term of leadership
Problems of leaders
Authority in the wrong hands is a sign of doom
Be gradual in obtaining compliance
Comparing types of leaders
Comparing leader and follower roles in various leadership styles
Characteristics of charismatic leaders
Comparing advantages and disadvantages of charismatic leadership
Comparing charismatic and non-charismatic leadership
Choice of leadership style for different situations
Comparing task vs people-oriented leaders
INSTRUCTIONS: THE DISCUSSION LEADER OR THE MEMBERS (IN TURNS) WILL PRESENT
THE MAIN POINTS IN THE BACKGROUND READING SECTIONS PRE-ASSIGNED THE PREVIOUS WEEK
WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?
Leadership is the single most important determinant in organizational
success. Good leadership leads to success; bad leadership leads to frustration and failure. One of the harbingers of doom
is to place leadership authority in the wrong hands.
All members, supporters, and sympathizers of the organization
are stakeholders who are concerned about success and failure of leadership.
Leadership is a pre-condition for civilized existence. Any
group of 3 or more must have a leader. Absence of recognized leadership means chaos to the detriment of all.
Leadership is the process of influencing people and making
them do certain things. It is both an art and a science. It has rational, emotional, intuitive and instinctive dimensions.
Leadership involves moving followers in a certain direction
mostly by non-coercive methods. Successful leaders get voluntary cooperation from followers. Good leaders deal with their
followers honestly and are up front. Good leaders persuade and do not command. Fear and authority are not leadership. Leaders
who depend only on authority and coercion do not go very far. Poor leaders by contrast manipulate their followers. Manipulation
is getting a person to do what they are not aware of or do not want to do.
True leadership is more service than domination. The leader
is the servant (Sayyid Al Qawm Khadimuhum).
Leadership is both a science and an art. A few leadership
skills are innate but most are acquired by experience and education.
There is a dynamic interaction between the leader, the followers,
and the situation. A leader of one group of followers may not be able to lead a different group. A leader in one situation
may fail in another one. Leadership may be formal and legalistic or informal.
Roles of leaders and followers can be interchanged. A leader
may be a follower of a more powerful leader. A good leader must therefore also be a good follower.
Leadership involves the following specific functions: setting
and communicating visions, goals, and objectives; representing followers; directing, coordinating, and integrating; influencing,
mobilizing, motivating, creating enthusiasm and optimism; providing services and making a difference.
A leader is a public figure and has to accept more invasion
of his privacy than an ordinary person. It is important that people know enough
about his private life to be assured that he is not involved in any activity that is incompatible with leadership position.
The leader must be accessible at all times and can not claim privacy as a reason for not carrying out leadership functions.
The followers must however have some consideration for the leader and his family. They must give him some privacy so that
he can lead an ordinary life
Good and effective leadership is a source of greatness (ab'qariyyah).
Great movements and changes in history are always associated with great leaders. Intended here is real, genuine, moral, and
competent leadership based on character and integrity and not the phony leadership that thrives on propaganda, deceit, and
manipulation. Bad leaders are motivated by power alone. They just like the exercise of power. Good leaders have higher motivation.
They want to use leadership power to improve and make a change.
The Prophet Muhammad and the 5 rightly-guided khulafaha after
him are, and other illustrious leaders in history are a model of ideal leadership. They led according to the dictates of the
noble teachings, maintained justice, avoided oppression and promoted the welfare of their immediate followers and generations
to come. The Prophet's character was patience and perseverance, wisdom and foresight, kindness, concern for others, honesty
and truthfulness, justice, courage and firmness, love and mercy, forgiveness, simplicity and humility, and good humor. Abubakr
is remembered for his piety, wisdom, gentle character, honesty, principled behavior, and justice. Abubakr was gentle and kind
in most cases but when the need arose he would be very firm and decisive. Omar Ibn al Khattab is remembered for his courage,
justice, hard-work, seriousness, and generosity. Uthman b Affan is remembered for his piety, gentle character, modesty and
benevolence. Ali b Abi Talib is remembered for his bravery, scholarship, learning and justice. Khalid Ibn al Walid is remembered
for his bravery and his military strategy. Omar Ibn Abdul Aziz is remembered for his righteousness and piety.
Power is capability or potential to get something done. Influence
is exercise of power to get something done. Authority is formal power that a leader has as a virtue of the position. Power
and leadership are interdependent but are not interchangeable. A leader needs power to succeed and influence others but power
alone does not make an effective leader. There are 2 types of leadership power: personal and positional. Both are used in
varying proportions depending on the leadership situation. Personal power is based on character, expertise, charisma, and
personal relations. Positional power is based on formal authority that includes decision-making, reward, punishment, and control
of information and organizational resources. The leader has to make a correct judgment of which source of power to use in
a particular leadership situation
Influence is exercise of leadership power. Powerful leaders
have more influence. They have credibility and can get more compliance from their followers. Leaders can get follower compliance
by rational persuasion, appeal, pressure, promise of rewards, negotiations (win-win, compromise). Leader get followers to
do things either by making small demands followed by big ones, or by starting with big demands followed by small ones of the
big ones are not possible
A leader gains more power and influence by building credibility.
Credibility is based on competence (experience, knowledge, and skills), character (honesty, kindness, sympathy), self-confidence,
activity and drive, boldness and assertiveness. The followers must trust the leader if he is to lead them well.. Building
credibility starts with self-assessment to know your strengths and use them, to identify your weaknesses and compensate for
them. You have to listen to and learn from the followers. Keeping promises and being predictable are very important for credibility.
Good leaders lead by teaching leadership, they pull and do
not push. Good leadership involves empowering followers by coaching them and then sharing leadership power with them through
delegation. Followers must be given real authority, information and resources but must be held accountable for what they are
doing. Empowered followers have heightened self-efficacy and self-confidence. They will have higher performance, exhibit more
cooperation, achieve higher personal growth, and in the end all ensure the survival of the organization.
TYPES OF LEADERSHIP
Leadership is a function exercised by almost everybody each
in his or her own sphere; we are at least leaders of ourselves or leaders of our families. Leadership can be in the community,
the work-place, and in public organizations. Since everybody has some leadership roles, each one can become a more effective
leader by formal training or gaining experience on the job. Not everyone wants to be a public leader. There are many people
who are just not prepared to invest energy and shoulder the responsibilities of public leadership.
Leadership is highly individualized and is very specific for
the situation and the type of followers. Each circumstance calls for different skills and style of leadership. The only constant
un-varying dimension is that whatever style or skills are employed, they must conform to the leader's basic personality, values,
and attitudes otherwise there will be inconsistencies that will eventually lead to leadership failure.
Several types of leaders and styles of leadership can be described:
autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire. Leaders can be transactional, transformational, or charismatic. Some leaders are
task oriented whilst others are people-oriented. Choice of type or style must be flexible. The choice is determined by: the
situation, leader personality, follower personality, type of organization, and type of work carried out. Some situations call
for use of a combination of leadership styles.
Autocratic leaders are dictatorial. They set goals, make all
the decisions and just give followers orders to carry out. They set goals and personally direct tasks. There is very little
follower feed-back. Democratic leaders on the other hand involve followers in decision-making, listen to them, and give them
a chance to participate. There is feed-back fro both the leaders and the followers. Laissez-faire. leaders neglect their role.
They have little interaction with the followers. They do not care about what the followers do. The followers are free to do
what they want, how and when they want. Laisser-faire leaders exercise hands-off management
Leadership may be task-oriented or people-oriented. A good
leader has the right mixture of the two for the particular leadership situation he may find himself in. The correct synthesis
is to concentrate first on the people, make them believe in themselves, trust them, train and nurture them and then let them
produce superior results. Task-oriented leaders are mainly interested in production and results. They often have poor interpersonal
skills. Some leaders perform well with structured tasks whereas others are best with unstructured tasks. People-oriented leaders
are interested in the welfare of the followers and try to make them happy and contented. It this is take to the extreme productivity,
quality, and results may be forgotten
Transformational leadership is a type of transaction leadership
that focuses on higher goals instead of immediate material rewards for followers. Transformational leaders empower, inspire,
innovate, and raise passions. They have a vision and communicate it effectively. They raise followers to higher levels of
motivation and morality. They give their followers a feeling of well-being and imbue new confidence and blow a new spirit
in them. There is an emotional bond between the leaders and the followers. Their power is person-centered
Transactional leaders fulfil the followers' current material
and psychological needs in return for performance. Their outlook is managerial.
Charismatic leaders arise in certain circumstances and are
not selected. They are characterized by their commitment to values, enthusiasm and energy. They have person-centered authority
which ends with their exit from the stage. They are revered and followers are devoted to them. They are invariably dynamic
public speakers. They evoke strong emotions, display self-confidence and competence, serve as role models, communicate high
expectations with transcendental goals, and embody in their person the hopes, aspirations, and frustrations of the followers.
Positive charismatic leaders use their authority to improve society. Wise leaders are never fooled by the charisma. Negative
charismatic leaders use that authority for their own self-aggrandizement. Charismatic leaders have a tendency to think of
themselves as indispensable and to know all. They may develop egoistic and dictatorial tendencies. They can easily misuse
their great authority and power. They usually do not prepare others to take their place. When they disappear from the stage
they leave behind a void and instability.
EVALUATION OF LEADERS
Leaders, being human, are not always perfect. They have strengths
and weaknesses. A correct assessment of a particular leadership situation requires looking at both strengths and weaknesses.
Expectations generate a power and a momentum of their own and are a very powerful motivator. A leader who effectively communicates
expectations gets what he expects. Only self-confident leaders can communicate expectations effectively. Practical life tests
leaders in various ways; the strongest emerge successful from the tests. A leader must be able to stand up to emotional and
psychological pressures, must maintain his calm and objectivity in face of personal insults and abuse directed at him or what
he stands for and loves. He must be able to deal fairly with people he is not emotionally comfortable with: opposers, those
who abuse, and disparage him.
There is no leadership without followership. The quality of
the followers determines the quality of the leadership. A good leader may fail with bad followers. An average leader may succeed
if he has good followers. In the long run it is follower quality that determines the nature of a particular leadership situation.
"The way you are is the way of your leaders". Followers get the leaders they deserve. Incongruence between followers and leaders
is usually temporary and hardly exceeds a generation. In a certain situation, a successful fit between leaders and followers
leads to success. Successful leadership requires that followers obey the leader. There are however limitations and conditions
for that obedience as will be discussed later.
Successful public leadership is always directly or indirectly
dependent on the consent of the followers. Good selection of public leaders requires participation of the followers. Leaders
can not be imposed. Imposition of leaders can work for only a short time or is associated with unsuccessful leader-follower
situations. The exact method of expressing the follower's view varies according to the circumstances of each group. Follower
input whatever its nature can not be ignored.
TERM OF LEADERSHIP
There is no correct answer to the question how long should
one individual stay in leadership? It is better to leave this matter open and decide according to circumstances. Staying too
long discourages the emergence of younger leaders and infusing new blood and new ideas into the organization. It may also
result into inefficiency as the leader loses effectiveness with time. Frequent changes of leaders may on the other hand result
in lack of continuity and instability. There are situations in which one long-serving leader is the only one with the skills
and charisma to hold the organization together. In such a case you should not insist on change for the sake of change.
PROBLEMS OF LEADERS
Leaders experience problems. Being at the top can be lonely.
They take responsibility for failures. Followers may be disloyal to the leader or the organization. Subordinates may have
poor values that the leader can not stand. There may be dissent. The leader may be ahead of the followers in vision and thinking.
External threats are always looming on the horizon.
READ OUT EACH TEXT ALOUD TWO TIMES. MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND THE MAIN POINTS RAISED. WRITE DOWN THE MAIN LESSON(S) YOU HAVE
LEARNED FROM THE TEXT.
LEADERSHIP AFTER TRIAL
And remember that Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain Commands, which he fulfilled: He said: " I will make you
An Imam to the Nations. He pleaded: " And also ( Imams ) from my offspring!" He answered: " But My promise is not within the
reach of evildoers. Qur'an 2:124
GOOD LEADER WANTS GOOD FOLLOWERS:
And those who pray, Our Lord! Grant unto us wives and offspring who will be the comfort of our eyes, and give us (
the grace ) To lead the righteous. Qur'an 25:74
LEADER TO BE GIVEN SOME PRIVACY:
O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet's houses until leave
is given you for a meal, ( and then ) Not ( so early as ) to wait for its preparation: but when you are invited, enter; And
when you have taken your meal, disperse, without seeking familiar talk. Such ( behavior ) annoys the Prophet: he is ashamed
to dismiss you, but Allah is not ashamed ( to tell you ) the truth. Qur'an 33:53
THE 5 RIGHTLY-GUIDED KHULAFA: A MODEL
"Sufyan al Thawri said: The Caliphs are four: Abu Bakr, Umar
Uthman, Ali and Umar Ibn Abd al Aziz" Abu Daud 3:1300, Chapter 1684, hadith # 4614
A GROUP OF 3 OR MORE MUST SELECT A LEADER
"Abu Said al Khudri reported the Apostle of Allah ( may peace
be upon him ) as saying: When three are on a journey, they should appoint one of them as their commander." Abu Daud 2:721, Chapter 933, hadith # 2602
LACK OF LEADERSHIP IS AN OMINOUS SIGN
"Salamah daughter of al Hurr and sister of Kharshah b. al
Hurr al Fazari said 'I heard the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him ) say One of the signs of the Last Hour will be that
people in mosques will refuse to act as imam and will not find an imam to lead them in prayer." Abu Daud 1:153, Chapter 153,
Hadith # 581
AMBITION FOR LEADERSHIP PROHIBITED
"Abd al Rahman b Samurah said: The Apostle of Allah ( may
peace be upon him ) said to me: Abd al-Rahman b. Samurah, do not ask for the position of commander, for if you are given it
after asking you will be left to discharge it yourself, but if you are given it without asking you will be helped to discharge
it." Abu Daud 2:827, Chapter 1090, hadith # 2923
UNFIT INCOMPETENT LEADERS:
"Wait for doomsday when the deposit ( amanat ) is wasted.
He inquired: " What's the wasting of the deposit?" His holiness said: When rulership is entrusted to the incompetent, wait
for the doomsday" Hayat 3:266-267
EVERYBODY IS A LEADER IN HIS/HER WAY:
“Abdullah b Umar reported the Apostle of Allah ( may peace be upon him) as saying: Each of you is a shepherd
and each of you is responsible of his flock. The amir ( ruler ) who is over the people is a shepherd and is responsible for
his flock; a man is a shepherd in charge of the inhabitants of his household and he is responsible for his flock; a woman
is a shepherdess in charge of her husband's house and children and she is responsible for them; and a man's slave is a shepherd
in charge of his master's property and he is responsible for it. So each of you is a shepherd and each of you is responsible
for his flock" Abu Daud 2:827, Chapter 1089, hadith # 2922
EVERYBODY IS RESPONSIBLE:
"It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar that the
Holy Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) said: Beware, every one of you is a shepherd and every one is answerable wit regard
to his flock. The Caliph is a shepherd over the people and shall be questioned about his subjects ( as to how he conducted
their affairs ). A man is a guardian over the members of his family and shall be questioned about them ( as how he looked
after their physical and moral well-being ) A woman is a guardian over the household of her husband and his children and shall
be questioned about them ( as to how she managed the household and brought up the children ). A slave is a guardian over the
property of his master and shall be questioned about it ( as to how he safeguarded his trust ). Beware, every one of you is
a guardian and every one of you shall be questioned with regard to his trust."
Muslim 3: 1017, Chapter 758, Hadith # 4496
AUTHORITY IN WRONG HANDS IS SIGN OF DOOM:
"Narrated Abu Huraira: While the Prophet was saying something in a gathering, a Bedouin came and asked him " When would
the Hour ( Doomsday ) take place?" Allah's Apostle continued his talk, so some people said that Allah's Apostle had heard
the question, but did not like what that Bedouin has asked. Some of them said that Allah's Apostle had not heard it. When
the Prophet finished his speech, he said, " Where is the questioner, who enquired about the Hour ( Doomsday)?" The Bedouin
said, " I am here, O Allah's Apostle " Then the Prophet said, " When honesty is lost, then wait for the Hour ( Doomsday ).
The Bedouin said, " How will that be lost?" The Prophet said, " When the power or authority comes in the hands of unfit persons,
then wait for the Hour (doomsday)" Bukhari 1;50-51,
hadith # 56
BE GRADUAL IN OBTAINING COMPLIANCE:
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: Allah's Apostle said to Mu'adh bin Jabal
when he sent him to Yemen. "You will come to the people of scripture, and when you reach them, invite them to testify
that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is His Apostle. And if they obey you in that, then
tell them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers to be performed every day and night. And if they obey you in that,
then tell them that Allah has enjoined on them Sadaqa (i.e. Zakat) to be taken from the rich amongst them and given to the
poor amongst them. And if they obey you in that, then be cautious! Don't take their best properties (as Zakat) and be afraid
of the curse of an oppressed person as there is no screen between his invocation and Allah. Bukhari:
COMPARING TYPES OF LEADERS
Fill the following table defining different types of leaders.
Score each criterion as high, medium, or low.
COMPARING LEADER AND FOLLOWER ROLES IN VARIOUS
Complete the following table showing the roles of leaders
and followers under 3 styles of leadership (autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire) and by function (goal setting, debates,
decision-making, feed-back, implementation). For each function write ‘L’ if if it is done mostly by the leader,
‘F’ if it is done by the follower and “L&F’ if it is done by both.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHARISMATIC LEADERS
Think of a charismatic leader that you have known and score
the following characteristics as high, medium, and low.
Followers identify with leader
Followers willing subordinates
Followers feel empowered
Leader articulates future vision
Leader has rhetorical skills
Leader projects positive image of success
Emotional bond between leader and followers
Crises help emergence of charisma
COMPARING ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CHARISMATIC
Think of a particular charismatic leader you know or have
read about. For a specific context of time, place, and circumstances score the advantages and disadvantages as high, medium,
havoc or destruction
COMPARING CHARISMATIC AND NON-CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP
Complete the following table comparing a charismatic and non-charismatic
leader. Think of two leaders you have read about or have known, one charismatic and the other non-charismatic. Score each
criterion as high or low.
Accept status quo
Sensitivity to environment
Articulation of goal/vision
Use of personal power
Use of positional power
Fill the following table comparing types of leadership power.
Write down 1-3 advantages/disadvantages for each type of power
TYPE OF POWER
Fill in the following table comparing directive, participative,
and laissez-faire leadership on various performance criteria (indicate high, average,low)
Conflict in group
CHOICE OF LEADERSHIP
STYLE FOR DIFFERENT SITUATIONS
Fill in the following table about choice of leadership styles
in given situations
Leader has superior
Followers mature and
Time is of essence
COMPARING TASK VS
Fill the following table comparing task-oriented to people-oriented
Listening to others
Using yourself as an example or a particular leader you know
very well and complete the following table (O=Occasionally, F=Frequently, S=Seldom)
Act as group spokesman
Allow followers complete freedom in work
Encourage uniform procedures
Permit followers to use their judgment in solving problems
Permit followers to perform as they think best
Make decision: what and how
Push for increased achievements
Willing to make changes
Do not explain actions
Using yourself as an example or a particular leader you know
very well and complete the following table (O=Occasionally, F=Frequently, S=Seldom)
Task achievement/push for increased achievement